High objects of State (letters patent from Queen Victoria, each w/ Great Seal):
Author of Balfour Declaration - 1898 diplomatic credentials, for talks with Germany |
Chancellor of the Exchequer letters patent of Gladstone, 1873
The (Swedish General) Viktor Balck Olympic Games- Founding Archive
Swedish gold and bronze medals honoring Viktor Balck | Viktor Balck 1912 Stockholm Olympics book
Tower and Sword collar of Viktor Balck
Civil War Gillmore Medal to Jewish officer who helped 1863 "Glory" charge toward Ft. Wagner 1863
Statesmen |Koerber - 1920s friend, then foe of Hitler |The Viktor von Koerber WWI Aviation Archive|
Presentation keys, gold medal to major U.K. statesman Award Documents to important 19th century European diplomats
The JFK and staffers convention badges etc. Archive: I.D. Badges to JFK and Secretary Ev Lincoln Mass. Labor Federation badge (major speech) 1960 Democratic Nomination campaign: aide Bob Troutman
Heroines | "Girl who defied Hitler" at 1936 Olympics: biography Inge Sorensen Archive: items First ever (gold NYC) Women's Club Medal of Honor Award Diplomas to great Jewess opera singer
The Poignant Mayer family Jewish Heroism for (in WWI) and Flight from (pre-WWII) Germany Archive
Presentation trowel etc. to president of "philanthropic" society for troubled girls
Patricia A. Thomas Gladney
Base Assignment: Williams Army Air Base
Planes Flown: AT-6, BT-13
US WWII WASP service certificate to 1st winner of Amelia Earhart Scholarship
Awards of Outstanding International Importance to Statesmen and Heroines
On July 3, 1941, the fourth anniversary of Amelia Earhart's ill-fated flight from Lae, New Guinea, the first winner of the 99s scholarship was selected from a field of 29 contestants.
The Ninety-Nines had formed a scholarship fund committee in 1936 with Amelia Earhart as chairman. When Amelia was lost, Ruth Nichols led a committee to establish a suitable memorial. The Amelia Earhart Memorial Scholarship Fund was created on April 7, 1940 to help deserving 99s to further accomplishments, in memory of Amelia's unselfish interest and enthusiasm for all women in aviation.
Applicants were required to have at least 200 hours "to show that the girls have taken their flying as a serious activity and not a diversion." The first award went to Patricia Thomas, a 22-year-old flight instructor.
Born in 1918, Pat learned to fly as a high school student in Teancek, New Jersey. Not intending to teach, Pat took the new test for flight instructors at the recommendation of others. Soon she was flight instructing in the Civilian Pilot Training program in Gardena, California, near Los Angeles.
Pat used her AE Scholarship to get her instrument rating, and by 1943 was teaching instrument flying to Army Cadets. The following year she became a WASP and performed engineering test flying at Williams Field near Phoenix, Arizona. After the war, Pat returned to flight instructing in the San Francisco Bay area.
Pat's flying career encompassed 50 years as flight instructor, over 500 private, commercial, and multi-engine students tested as a pilot examiner, 58 years as a 99, 24 Powder Puff Derbies, and over 20,000 hours flight time. Patricia Thomas Gladney died in 1993.
San Jose Mercury News (CA), August 15, 1993
PATRICIA GLADNEY, PIONEER AMONG U.S. WOMEN AVIATORS SHE WAS ONE OF NATION'S FIRST LICENSED FEMALE FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS
MICHAEL CRONK, Mercury News Staff Writer
But her greatest satisfaction came in teaching instrument and commercial flying to thousands of students.
''I like to teach beginning students to fly. Flying is fun!" Mrs. Gladney used to say. She died Aug. 9 at the age of 75 in Los Altos.
''She was always trying to get somebody interested in flying," said her daughter, Gale Emerson. "She'd find any excuse to get into an airplane."
In 1935, Mrs. Gladney became one of the first women in the United States to be licensed by the Civil Aeronautics Authority as a flight instructor. She went on to receive her commercial pilot's license.
Following graduation from high school, she worked as a secretary for Aero Insurance Underwriters, which inspected airplanes around the country before they were insured. Mrs. Gladney would also fly to meet various small aircraft manufacturers to fly their new models and report on the planes' performance and comfort.
She drove to California in 1941 to teach civilian pilots at Gardena Airport. Later that year, she received the Amelia Earhart Scholarship from the Ninety-Nines Inc., an international organization of women pilots from 41 countries. Amelia Earhart was the organization's first president, and the group was named for the 99 charter members.
When World War II began, the flight school was moved to Lone Pine, and Mrs. Gladney served as chief pilot and flight examiner.
She moved to Phoenix in 1943 to teach instrument flying for Southwest Airways and a year later joined the WASPs and was stationed at Sweetwater, Texas, where she met and later married Jack Gladney, a captain for Southwest Airways. She was later stationed at Williams Field in Arizona doing engineering test flying.
Following the war, she moved to the Bay Area and continued as a flight instructor for various flight schools at the Palo Alto Airport.
Mrs. Gladney raised Persian cats and continued to fly until she was nearly 70 years of age.
14 inches X 19 inches
(Certificate and 1945 letter both signed by) Jacqueline Cochran (1906-1980)
Her most distinguished aviation career began in 1932 when she obtained her pilot's license with only three weeks of instruction. From this time onward, her life was one of total dedication to aviation. After her first air race in 1934, she was respected by all for her competitive spirit and high skill. Her performance in the aviation events of the 1930's is legendary. Among her last flight activities was the establishment in 1964 of a record of 1,429 MPH in the F-104 Starfighter.
At the beginning of World War II, she became a Wing Commander in the British Auxiliary Transport Service ferrying U.S. built Hudson bombers to England. With the U.S. entry into the War, she offered her services to the Army Air Corps and formed the famed Women's Air Force Service Pilots. This group, more than 1000 strong played a major role in the delivery of aircraft to the combat areas throughout the world. For this service, she was awarded the U.S. Distinguished Service Medal.
Some of the honors she has been accorded include the Harmon Trophy, the General William E. Mitchell Award, Gold Medal of the Federation Aeronautique, and decorations from numerous countries.
Invested 1965 in the International Aerospace Hall of Fame.
Ferrying Squadron (WAFS) established, and a few women were hired. Jackie Cochran returned to establish the Women's Flying Training Detachment (WFTD).
On August 5, 1943, these two efforts -- WAFS and WFTD -- merged to become the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), with Cochran as director. More than 25,000 women applied -- with requirements including a pilot's license and many hours experience. The first class graduated on December 17, 1943. The women had to pay their own way to the training program in Texas. A total of 1830 were accepted into training and 1074 women graduated from WASP training during its existence, plus 28 WAFS. The women were trained "the Army way" and their graduation rate was similar to that for male military pilots.
The WASP was never militarized, and those who served as WASP were considered civil service employees. There was considerable opposition to the WASP program in the press and in Congress. General Henry "Hap" Arnold, US Army Air Force commander, first supported the program, then disbanded it. The WASP was deactivated December 20, 1944, having flown about 60 million miles in operations. Thirty-eight WASP were killed, including some during training.
Records of WASP were classified and sealed, so historians minimized or ignored the women pilots. In 1977 -- the same year the Air Force graduated its first post-WASP women pilots -- Congress granted veteran status to those who had served as WASP, and in 1979 issued official honorable discharges.
General ‘Hap’ Arnold, one of the greatest American military figures and Air Force proponents in the history of America, was born in Gladwyn, Pennsylvania on June 25, 1886. Following graduation from the United States Military Academy, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant of Infantry on 14 June, 1907.
In 1911 he entered aviation and became a flyer. He was detailed to the Signal Corps in April, 1911, piloting the Wright bi-plane. He was one of the first flyers taught by the Wright Brothers.
In June, 1912, this pioneering pilot, Hap Arnold, established a new altitude record when he piloted a Brugree-Wright airplane to a height of 6,540 feet. He participated in the Regular Army and National Guard movements in the States of New York and Connecticut and established several aeronautical records. On October 9, 1942, he won the first Mackay Trophy to be awarded for his flight demonstrations.
He progressed rapidly through the ranks, and by 11 February 1935 he had received the temporary rank of Brigadier General, and on September 29, 1938 he was named Chief of Staff of the Air Corps. With Hitler now marching across Europe, he became concerned with America‘s lack of combat aircraft. He discussed the US air power vs the German air power with President Roosevelt, and a decision was made to build 11,000 new combat aircraft. Gen. Arnold then commanded that civilian flying schools be established to train Air Corps pilots.
The Army Air Forces was established in 1941 and Major General Arnold became Chief of Staff for Air and Chief of the Army Air Forces.
During the early months of 1942, General Arnold, encountering a severe shortage of male pilots due to heavy losses of combat pilots, approved a plan, submitted by Jacqueline Cochran, to train young women pilots to fly military aircraft within the U.S. to relieve the male pilots for combat duty. On 14 Sept 1942, the Womens Flying Training Detachment was established at the Houston Municipal Airport, with Jacqueline Cochran as its Director. Three months later, because of a lack of military training facilities and housing in Houston, Gen. Arnold approved moving the training program to Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas.
In May of 1943, General Hap Arnold authorized Jacqueline Cochran to see to developing a suitable uniform for the women pilots. He wants it to be ‘blue‘. In concurrence with the new Santiago blue WASP uniforms, on Aug 20, General Arnold, CG/AAF issued orders that ‘The acronym for all AAF women pilots will be WASP (Women Airforce Service Pilots) period.‘
March 22, 1944 General Arnold appeared before the House Military Affairs Committee to request commissions for the WASP. He leaves immediately for Europe to participate in the D-Day invasion, and the bill fails to pass.
June 26, 1944, following the defeat of the bill to include the WASP as officers in the Army Air Force, General Arnold orders that the WASP be discontinued in December, 1944.
General Arnold retired from the service on 30 June 1946 with the ratings of Command Pilot and Combat Observer. His many accomplishments, of both
personal and national significance, gained him the distinction of becoming the first five-star General of the United States Air Force on 7 May 1949, by an act of Congress.
He died on 15 January 1950 of a cardiac condition.
General Arnold received the Distinguished Flying Cross in November, 1936, and the Distinguished Service Medal in October, 1942. He was awarded the Air Medal in March, 1943, and in September, 1945, he received the Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal. In October, 1945, he was awarded a second Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal. His other awards included: The World War II Victory Medal; American Defense Medal; American Theater Ribbon; Asiatic Pacific Theater Ribbon; European-African-Middle Eastern Theater Ribbon, 1943; U.S. Military Badge No 1; Morocco’s Grand Cross, Grand Officer of the Commander (Ouissam Alaouite); Yugoslavia's Sun in the degree of Grand Aztec Eagle; Mexico’s Order of Military Merit; and England's Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.
The H. H. Arnold Award was established in honor of General Arnold by the Air Force Association in 1948. It is presented for the "most outstanding contributions toward the peace and the service of the United States in the field of aviation." The Arnold Air Society Squadrons at outstanding universities all over America with AFROTC (Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps) programs are so named in his honor.
General Arnold had but one theme: "It's got to be done and done quickly, so let’s get it done." Let not there be any doubt of the WASP’ pride in General Henry "Hap" Arnold, the man who, among his many accomplishments, authorized the creation and naming of the WASP-a man who "had the imagination to see success and the confidence to create it".
64 page photocopy of history of WASP training program (at Sweetwater, Texas), from which Thomas graduated.
Compiled by Leni L. Deaton, WASP Staff Executive Historian.
WASP - Women Pilots of World War II
Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP)
By Jone Johnson Lewis, About.com
(Thomas' WASP certificate signed by)
The North American T-6 Texan was a single-engine advanced trainer aircraft
Number built 15,495
The Texan originated from the North American NA-16
A further 92 BC-1A and three BC-2 aircraft were built before the shift to the "advanced trainer" designation, AT-6, which was equivalent to the BC-1A. The differences between the AT-6 and the BC-1 were new outer wing panels with a swept forward trailing edge, squared-off wingtips and a triangular rudder, producing the definitive Texan appearance. After a change to the rear of the canopy, the AT-6 was designated the Harvard II for RAF/RCAF orders and 1,173 were supplied by purchase or Lend Lease
Next came the AT-6A which was based on the NA-77 design and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49
In late 1937 Mitsubushi purchased two NA-16
The NA-88 design resulted in 2,970 AT-6C Texans and 2,400 as the SNJ-4. The RAF received 726 of the AT-6C as the Harvard IIA. Modifications to the electrical system produced the AT-6D (3,713 produced) and SNJ-5 (1,357 produced). The AT-6D, redesignated the Harvard III, was supplied to the RAF (351 aircraft) and Fleet Air Arm (564 aircraft). Subsequently the NA-121 design with a completely clear rearmost section on the canopy, gave rise to 25 AT-6F Texans for the USAAF and 931, as the SNJ-6 for the US Navy. The ultimate version, the Harvard 4, was produced by Canada Car and Foundry
A total of 15,495 T-6s of all variants were built.
Since the Second World War, the T-6 has been a regular participant at air shows
Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II
The aircraft made its maiden flight sometime during March 1939 as a cantilever
The V-51 was entered into the USAAC competition as the BC-51 during May 1939. The USAAC instead chose the North American BC-2
From this design, evolved the VF-54A. Instead of retractable gear, it had fixed gear very nicely faired and a revised power plant of a Pratt & Whitney R-985
The USAAC was made aware of the improvements made to the aircraft and in August 1939 the type was ordered as the BT-13. The initial order was for 300 aircraft with a Pratt & Whitney R-985
The BT-13A was produced to the extent of 7,037 aircraft and differed only in the use of a Pratt & Whitney R-985
The next variant was actually designated BT-15 because Pratt & Whitney found it impossible to keep up production of the R-985 engine. Instead a Wright R-975
The US Navy began to show an interest in the aircraft as well and ordered 1,150 BT-13A models as the SNV-1. In addition, the Navy ordered some 650 aircraft designated as SNV-2 roughly equivalent to the BT-13B.
Once in service, the aircraft quickly got its nickname of "Vibrator" because it had a tendency to shake quite violently as it approached its stall speed.
The BT-13 served its intended purpose well. It and its successors were unforgiving aircraft to fly, but were also extremely agile. Thus the BT-13 made a good aircraft to help transition many hundreds of pilots toward their advance trainers and fighters yet to be mastered.
Vultee Model V.51 with retractable landing gear and a 600hp P&W R-1340
Vultee Model V.54 with fixed undercarriage and a 450hp P&W R-985
§ Wingspan: 42 ft 0 in (12.80 m)
§ Height: 11 ft 6 in (3.51 m)
§ Wing area: 239 ft² (22 m²)
§ Empty: 3,375 lb (1,531 kg)
§ Maximum takeoff: 4,496 lb (2,039 kg)
§ Service ceiling: 21,650 ft (6,600 m)
§ Mid-Atlantic Air Museum
§ Castle Air Museum
§ Kalamazoo Air Zoo
§ Combat Air Museum
§ Estrella WarBirds Museum
The Vultee BT-13 Valiant was a American
Design and development
Due to the demand for this aircraft, and others which used the same Pratt & Whitney
The Navy adopted the P&W powered aircraft as their main basic trainer, designating it the SNV.
Today, some "BT's" (collectively, BT-13s, BT-15s and SNVs) are still flying, though in very limited numbers (and none in military or government service). After WWII, virtually all were sold as surplus for a few hundred dollars each. Many were purchased just to obtain their engines, which were mounted on surplus biplanes (such as Stearmans
It was back in 1938 that Vultee Aircraft's chief designer, Richard Palmer, began the design of a fighter. At this time the USAAC issued a requirement and design contest for an advanced trainer for which substantial orders had been promised to the victor. Palmer began to adapt his design concept from a fighter to that of an advanced trainer and the result of this was the V-51 prototype.
P.O. Box 300791, Chicago, IL 60630, USA
Electronic mail email@example.com
Prices available upon request.
OUR MISSION --The Ninety-Nines is the international organization of women pilots that promotes advancement of aviation through education, scholarships, and mutual support while honoring our unique history and sharing our passion for flight.
Established in 1929 by 99 women pilots, the members of The Ninety-Nines, Inc., International Organization of Women Pilots, are represented in all areas of aviation today. And, to quote Amelia, fly “for the fun of it!”
P.O. Box 300791, Chicago, IL 60630, USA
General Information: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Official US government documents about WASPS
In the United States, women pilots were trained to fly non-combat missions in order to free male pilots for combat missions. They ferried planes from the manufacturing plants to military bases, and ended up doing much more -- including flying new aircraft such as the B-29, to prove to male pilots that these were not as difficult to fly as the men thought!
Well before World War II became imminent, women had made their mark as pilots. Amelia Earhart, Jacqueline Cochran, Nancy Harkness Love, Bessie Coleman and Harriet Quimby were only a few of the women record-holders in avaition.
In 1939, women were allowed to be part of the Civilian Pilot Training Program, a program designed to train college students to fly, with an eye to national defense. But women were limited by quota to one woman for every ten men in the program.
Jackie Cochran and Nancy Harkness Love separately proposed the use by the military of women. Cochran lobbied Eleanor Roosevelt, writing a 1940 letter urging that a women's division of the Air Force be established especially to ferry planes from manufacturing plants to military bases.
With no such American program supporting the Allies in their war effort, Cochran and 25 other American women pilots joined the British Air Transportation Auxiliary. Shortly after, Nancy Harkness Love was successful in getting the Women's Auxiliary